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July 31 – August 3, 2017
The Penn Stater Conference Center Hotel
State College, Pennsylvania

Conference Archive 2015

NOTE: Documents uploaded on this page have not been modified and are in the format as received from the presenters.
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Monday, August 3

1. Conference Welcome and Pennsylvania Updates
Angela Kirby-Wehr, Mike Miklos

This presentation will welcome participants to the conference and provide a quick update on Pennsylvania's efforts in the education of students with autism.
Special Presentation

2. Opening Keynote: EIBI, ASD, and the Forward March of Behavior Analysis
Patrick C. Friman

Mankind continues to be guided by ancient, flawed ideas. One of the most pernicious of these ideas attributes problematic behavior to inherent flaws or defects in the persons exhibiting the behavior. The three most common domains for these flaws are morality, character, and psyche. Assumption of defect in these domains results in multiple challenges, including defensiveness and resistance from the persons thought to be defective, helplessness and hopelessness in the presence of the problem behavior, and/or harsh treatment of the persons whose behavior is considered a problem. In stark contrast to this ancient idea, the core assumption of behavior analysis is that problem behavior (indeed, all behavior) occurs as a function of circumstances rather than inherent human characteristics. However appealing this idea may be, its ultimate value can only be determined by its application to real human problems. Starting in the 1960s, documentation of its beneficial application across a variety of problems began to appear, but none captured much attention outside the field of behavior analysis — with one exception: ASD. Indisputable demonstrations of the benefit of applying behavior analysis to ASD, most notably in the form of EIBI, quickly captured the world's attention, and neither ASD nor the field has been the same since. This keynote will tout this extraordinary achievement, argue that it represents the slow and steady progress of behavior analysis from the austere pages of its primary scientific journals to the swirling currents of mainstream life, and recommend that new frontiers be explored.

3. NIH Translational Research: The Dawn of Implementation Science
Ami Klin

Autism Research Updates 2015

4a. Update on Research on Verbal Behavior and Autism
Anna Ingeborg Pétursdóttir

Behavior-analytic research on teaching verbal behavior to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is published in a variety of different journals, making it cumbersome for practitioners to follow and stay up to date with the literature. The purpose of this presentation is to summarize and synthesize information from recently published research in this area. A brief introduction to general trends in verbal behavior research will be followed by a comprehensive summary of recently published (within the last 18 months) studies that cover procedures for teaching mands, tacts, intraverbals, and complex verbal operants to individuals with ASD. Specific themes that emerge from these studies will be discussed, focusing on implications for practice. A few other recent findings from the verbal behavior literature will be summarized briefly.

4b. Bringing Science to the Community: A New System of Health Care Delivery for Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Ami Klin

Highlighting the critical role of early diagnosis and intervention in attenuating the symptoms of autism, data will be presented on early diagnostic indicators obtained through eye-tracking-based behavioral assays that quantify social disabilities. Results generate "growth charts" of normative social engagement, and deviations from the norm are taken as early indicators of risk. The ultimate goal of this effort is to develop objectified and quantified tools for detecting autism in infancy, tools that might be deployed in primary care and pediatricians’ offices. Through a collaboration with Dr. Amy Wetherby, work on promoting the full integration of primary care physicians and early intervention providers will be presented, intended to promote community-viable models of family support and early treatment.

5a. An Introduction to the National Autism Conference and Applied Behavior Analysis
Willow Hozella

This presentation will include a brief overview of evidence-based interventions for students with autism. Since most of that evidence suggests the importance of applied behavior analysis (ABA) in guiding interventions for individuals with autism, many sessions at the National Autism Conference focus on ABA. During this session, the basic principles of ABA will be presented for beginners and those who want a review of those principles. This session is appropriate for parents and educators. The content of this session will prepare attendees to get the most out of this year's conference. Information presented will be supported by videos of ABA–based interventions. Additionally, the session will include a brief review of how data may be presented in the various ABA–based sessions occurring at the conference.

6. The Role of Establishing Basic Skill Sets That Lead to Novel Responding
Dave Palmer

In the laboratory, we can "shape" complex behavior through many cycles of reinforcement, behavioral variation, and further reinforcement. However, human behavior is distinctive in that this shaping process is commonly "short-circuited." Critical variations are induced in a single trial. The processes by which this economy is accomplished have a common feature: They all exploit one or more "behavioral alphabets," elementary units of behavior each under control of a distinctive stimulus. Examples include echoic behavior, rule-governed behavior, imitative behavior, among many others. By appropriate arrangements of discriminative stimuli, an indefinite number of permutations of these elementary units can be evoked. When such a permutation satisfies a second contingency, it can come under control of the relevant context, and the explicit arrangement of discriminative stimuli will no longer be required. Consequently, innovations in adaptive behavior can spread rapidly through the population. A consideration of such elementary units informs our interpretation of observational learning, generalized operants, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to explain. Consequently, establishing such behavioral alphabets is an important educational goal for children at every level of functioning.

7. Behavioral Approaches to Teaching Executive Function Skills
Jonathan Tarbox
8. What Do We Know about the Genetics of Autism?
Santhosh Girirajan

Autism is a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with a high estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 50 live births in the general population. Recent studies using more accurate and standardized clinical testing and genetic analysis have provided insights into the diagnostic spectrum and genetic basis of autism. First, autism is clinically heterogeneous, with the variability and severity of the disorder dependent upon ascertainment practices. For example, more than 68% of individuals with autism also show features of intellectual disability, and as high as 40% of individuals with autism have features of epilepsy. Further, individuals with autism and epilepsy are more likely to also have features of intellectual disability, compared to those individuals with autism without epilepsy. Age of diagnosis also plays a major role in the ascertainment of children with multiple comorbid features. Second, twin studies, family-based studies, and genome-wide association studies comparing thousands of affected children to unaffected controls have shown a significant genetic influence for autism.

9. Recent Developments at the Behavior Analyst Certification Board
Melissa R. Nosik

The presenter will discuss recent developments at the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB). The most current data on the BACB's credentialing programs — Board Certified Behavior Analyst, Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst, Registered Behavior Technician — will be provided along with a summary of the BACB's international activities. In addition, a number of recent and impending developments at the BACB will be described, including revisions of the BACB's ethics code and disciplinary system, practice guidelines for autism spectrum disorder, eligibility standards, and BCaBA supervision requirement.

Tuesday, August 4

10. Meeting the Milestones: Implementing a Verbal Behavior Program for Children with Autism (repeat)
Mark L. Sundberg

This presentation will focus on developing a language intervention program for children with autism that is based on Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior. Participants can learn how to use the results of a VB-MAPP assessment to determine a child's immediate intervention priorities. Then, participants can learn how to use the VB-MAPP to set up and guide an individualized intervention program. The primary focus of the presentation will be on programs for early learners (Level 1 and 2 in the VB-MAPP). Several verbal behavior procedures will be described, along with ways to integrate them with each other and into the child's natural environment. Additional topics discussed over the course of the presentation will include vocabulary selection and tracking, data collection, behavior problems and barriers, and augmentative communication.

11. Advanced Treatment Methods: The Generic Power of Behavior Analysis
Patrick C. Friman

The practice of behavior analysis has been misinterpreted since its inauguration in the middle of the twentieth century. Of the many misinterpretations, the one that disturbs most is the widespread belief that it is predicated on an overly simple view of human behavior and that it is useful only for training pets, small children, and persons with severe developmental disabilities. Thus, in the training programs for clinical and counseling psychologists across the country, it receives barely a mention. Even in undergraduate psychology training, it receives not much more than a mention. Yet within the extant body of knowledge produced by behavior analysts over the years, there is more treatment power than in all the psychological sciences and practices combined. As just one example, Early Intensive Behavior Intervention has been shown to remediate the major symptoms of ASD, a condition that has thwarted psychological science and practice since ASD was first identified. Moreover, the most effective behavior change methods used in the mainstream practice of psychology are either based on the principles of behavior and/or composed of components produced by behavior analysts. For example, exposure and response prevention, the signature treatment in the field of cognitive behavior therapy, is really just escape extinction by another name. The purpose of this presentation is to convey the generic power of behavior analysis by describing an array of behavior analytic treatment methods, all of which are readily applicable to the behavior problems of persons on the spectrum and, indeed, to the behavior problems of all persons.

12. Ethics for Behavior Analysts and Other Professionals Serving Individuals with Autism and Their Families (repeat)
Amber Valentino, Joshua Sleeper

Our presentation will focus on important ethical considerations that professionals in human services should make when working with children with special needs and their families. We will focus on common ethical dilemmas and how to use the behavior analyst certification board's code of ethics to analyze and respond to these common situations. Finally, we will discuss how to create a culture of ethical behavior in an organizational setting through encouragement of open discussion, and an infrastructure for seeking assistance and fostering ethical behavior and development of educational resources.

13. Sleep in Children with Autism — Helping Families Get the Rest They Need
Beth Malow

We all need sleep to function well throughout the day. We have all experienced times when we haven't slept well, and we know how this can affect how we behave during the day. Research has also shown that sleep helps us learn, grow, and develop. Many children have trouble falling asleep at different times in their lives, but children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have more difficulty falling asleep than other children. Research has shown that 50–80% of children with ASD have problems with some aspect of sleep. Some of the common problems include trouble falling asleep, resisting bedtime, preferring a later bedtime, or waking up at night. Why are these problems so common in children with ASD? There are three main areas to think about — biological causes, medical causes, and behavioral causes. In this presentation, Dr. Malow will review the causes that affect sleep in children with ASD. Once causes have been identified, sleep problems can be treated, often with a great deal of success. Dr. Malow will review these treatments and help attendees learn how to work with their children's medical providers to help their children get the rest they need to function at their best during the day.

14. Teaching Communication at Home: Social Initiation and Communication Deficits Are Hallmarks of Autism
Katrina Mellott, Heather Forbes

Some children have not yet learned that interacting and communicating with others can be fun, reinforcing, or valuable. Mand training provides a method to teach children to ask for what they want and to initiate interactions with others. This can lead to meaningful socialization as well as a reduction in frustration and problem behavior. This session will discuss the basic principles and procedures of teaching children to make requests. It will include techniques to establish motivation, teach children to approach others, and develop a broad range of effective requesting behaviors.

15. The Role of Establishing Basic Skill Sets That Lead to Novel Responding (repeat)
Dave Palmer

In the laboratory, we can "shape" complex behavior through many cycles of reinforcement, behavioral variation, and further reinforcement. However, human behavior is distinctive in that this shaping process is commonly "short-circuited." Critical variations are induced in a single trial. The processes by which this economy is accomplished have a common feature: They all exploit one or more "behavioral alphabets," elementary units of behavior each under control of a distinctive stimulus. Examples include echoic behavior, rule-governed behavior, imitative behavior, among many others. By appropriate arrangements of discriminative stimuli, an indefinite number of permutations of these elementary units can be evoked. When such a permutation satisfies a second contingency, it can come under control of the relevant context, and the explicit arrangement of discriminative stimuli will no longer be required. Consequently, innovations in adaptive behavior can spread rapidly through the population. A consideration of such elementary units informs our interpretation of observational learning, generalized operants, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to explain. Consequently, establishing such behavioral alphabets is an important educational goal for children at every level of functioning.

16. Postsecondary Education Transition Considerations for Students with Autism
Kim Seymour, Mike Stoehr
17. Evidence-Based Early Identification and Intervention Practices for Infants and Toddlers with ASD and Their Families
Suzanne Kucharczyk

Note: This extended session involves attending both morning and afternoon time periods.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently being diagnosed at very young ages, reaching well into infancy. In this workshop, attendees will learn about early identification and assessment practices, an approach to assessing the quality of early intervention programs, intervention practices that have evidence of efficacy (Evidence-based practices or EBPs), and a process for linking IFSP outcomes and benchmarks to specific EBPs.

18. Supporting Social Relationships and Learning: The Power and Practice of Peer-Mediated Intervention
Erik Carter

This presentation will address the effectiveness and feasibility of peer-mediated interventions as evidence-based approaches for promoting inclusion and social participation within inclusive classrooms, extracurricular activities, and other school settings. Strategies for implementing peer support arrangements and peer networks will be shared, along with recommendations for reconsidering the use of individually assigned paraprofessionals and other special education staff to promote school inclusion.

19. Teaching Functional Skills to Individuals with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities
Barry Morgenstern

This session is an introduction to teaching functional skills and Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) to individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities, using the principles of applied behavior analysis. Functional skills are a critical outcome for individuals with developmental disabilities. Some examples of the skills that will be addressed during the presentation include toilet training, washing hands, cooking, taking a shower, cleaning up, making a purchase at a store, crossing the street, using public transportation, and completing jobs during competitive employment. This presentation will focus on teaching the basic skills that are needed to successfully teach these skills to a wide variety of learners of different ages. In addition, participants can learn how to individualize the programs for the unique needs of individual learners, and troubleshoot problems when learners fail to acquire the necessary skills.

20. Technology for Teaching and Learning: Tools You Can Use Right Now
Janet S. Twyman

"I'd like to use more technology in my teaching, but I'm not sure what or how." "My learner likes playing on the tablet, but how can I make it more educational?" "How do I know what works, or is best for this situation?" "What digital tools can I use to keep the instructional team on track and everyone informed?" These quandaries are familiar for many educators interested in digital technologies but uncertain as how to maximize their effectiveness in an instructional setting. Digital learning tools — hardware and software/apps — are increasingly available, and students reap greatest benefit from technology when their teachers apply knowledge of behavioral concepts/principals when selecting and using these tools. Digital and hardware technology tools will be reviewed within the categories of instruction/academics, social skills/behavior management, organizational/productivity, and communication/collaboration. During demonstrations and hands-on activities, participants can learn about various applications and tools, identify any correspondence with evidence-based behavioral principles, and evaluate if and how each might be useful in their instructional context. Participants can leave with both a plethora of potential tools to use, as well as numerous rubrics to aid in their consideration of other applications and products.

21. Teaching Children to Ask Meaningful Questions
T. V. Joe Layng, Joanne Robbins

In the teaching of reasoning, a set of questions may be provided for a learner to ask, a strategy that leads them to improved problem solving. These questions and other related repertoires provide children with capabilities often absent in both neuro-typical and high-functioning ASD children. Over the last 25 years, programs to teach such strategies and repertoires have been developed by Joanne Robbins (2011; 1994/2014) through her Talk Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS) programs. Though critically important, and even with these repertoires and strategies in place, another repertoire is also required to ensure fully independent thinking. This repertoire is question asking. While there has been considerable effort in helping children to answer questions, little emphasis has been placed on helping children to ask meaningful questions. This workshop will provide an overview and methods for establishing or extending the questioning repertoires of children. Topics covered will include types of questions, where and how to begin to teach questioning, social and life skill applications, and academic applications. We will demonstrate how combining fluent question generating with TAPS can provide learners with fluent thinking skills that will not only allow them to tackle problems, but that will also help them to create interesting problems to tackle.

17. Evidence-Based Early Identification and Intervention Practices for Infants and Toddlers with ASD and Their Families (continued)
Suzanne Kucharczyk

Note: This extended session involves attending both morning and afternoon time periods.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently being diagnosed at very young ages, reaching well into infancy. In this workshop, attendees will learn about early identification and assessment practices, an approach to assessing the quality of early intervention programs, intervention practices that have evidence of efficacy (Evidence-based practices or EBPs), and a process for linking IFSP outcomes and benchmarks to specific EBPs.

22. Meeting the Milestones: Implementing a Verbal Behavior Program for Children with Autism (repeat)
Mark L. Sundberg

This presentation will focus on developing a language intervention program for children with autism that is based on Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior. Participants can learn how to use the results of a VB-MAPP assessment to determine a child's immediate intervention priorities. Then, participants can learn how to use the VB-MAPP to set up and guide an individualized intervention program. The primary focus of the presentation will be on programs for early learners (Level 1 and 2 in the VB-MAPP). Several verbal behavior procedures will be described, along with ways to integrate them with each other and into the child's natural environment. Additional topics discussed over the course of the presentation will include vocabulary selection and tracking, data collection, behavior problems and barriers, and augmentative communication.

23. Behavior Momentum: Clinical Applications of the High Probability Command Sequence
Eb Blakely

Behavior momentum, more commonly called the high-probability command sequence (HPCS), is an important element of many programs dealing with task completion and following instructions. The HPCS involves providing a few high-probability directions, reinforcing compliance with said directions, and then delivering a low-probability request. The HPCS is used to increase the likelihood of the learner following the low-probability request. The presentation will show video examples of the procedure and how it can be effectively used to increase following directions, and how it can be used in teaching new skills. Important parameters, such as the number of high-probability directions and the role of the reinforcer, will be discussed. Inappropriate uses of the HPCS will be presented, as when it is sometimes used after problem behavior. The presentation will conclude with demonstrations of the procedure, and if possible, some guided practice.

24. Ethics for Behavior Analysts and Other Professionals Serving Individuals with Autism and Their Families (repeat)
Amber Valentino, Joshua Sleeper

Our presentation will focus on important ethical considerations that professionals in human services should make when working with children with special needs and their families. We will focus on common ethical dilemmas and how to use the behavior analyst certification board's code of ethics to analyze and respond to these common situations. Finally, we will discuss how to create a culture of ethical behavior in an organizational setting through encouragement of open discussion, and an infrastructure for seeking assistance and fostering ethical behavior and development of educational resources.

26. Introduction to Sign Language for Students with Autism
Laura Yates

This presentation will focus on teaching sign language to children with autism. The participants can learn the difference between the two primary types of response forms: topography-based (e.g., sign language) and selection-based (e.g., picture exchange). The benefits of teaching sign language will be discussed. Basic signs will be modeled and taught to participants.

27. Behaviorism: An Essential Survival Tool for Practitioners in Autism
Jim Johnston

Skilled ABA practice requires expertise in the basic science of operant behavior, methods of measuring and evaluating behavior change, the literature and technology of ABA, and the conceptual framework — radical behaviorism — that is consistent with the science underlying ABA. This presentation will focus on the last of these requirements. It will first consider the reasons why expertise in making radical behaviorism an integral part of ABA practice is important. This argument will then be supported by regulatory and practical benefits, including examples of circumstances in which a practitioner's conceptual orientation can lead in different therapeutic directions. Much of the presentation will focus on the different conceptual topics that ABA practitioners should master and bring to their daily work.

28. Workforce Transition Consideration for Students with Autism
Kim Seymour, Mike Stoehr
29. Supporting Social Relationships and Learning: The Power and Practice of Peer-Mediated Interventions
Erik Carter

This presentation will address the effectiveness and feasibility of peer-mediated interventions as evidence-based approaches for promoting inclusion and social participation within inclusive classrooms, extracurricular activities, and other school settings. Strategies for implementing peer support arrangements and peer networks will be shared, along with recommendations for reconsidering the use of individually assigned paraprofessionals and other special education staff to promote school inclusion.

30. Feeding Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Home- and Community-Based Solutions
Keith Williams

Problems with feeding and eating are common among children with autism spectrum disorders. Some children eat only a limited variety of foods, placing them at risk for being underweight or overweight, or having a variety of health problems. Other children may have intake that is so limited that they are dependent on liquid supplements or supplemental tube feedings. The goal of this presentation is to describe evidence-based treatments for these problems with eating and feeding in both home and community settings.

31. Personalized Learning and Competency-Based Education for Students with ASD
Janet S. Twyman

Two relatively new initiatives by the U.S. Department of Education reflect "best practices" that have been used with learners with ASD for decades. "Personalized learning" involves the modifying of teaching practices, curriculum, and learning environments in order to meet a student's different learning needs and targets. "Competency-based education" is a personalized learning approach that supports a student's progression through his or her academic work toward proficiency and mastery — regardless of time, method, place, or pace of learning (U.S. Department of Education, n.d.). A competency may be defined as a mixture of abilities and knowledge needed to accomplish a specific goal. A student's personal competencies (i.e., repertoires, considered across cognitive, meta-cognitive, motivational, and social/emotional domains) help propel learning and other forms of achievement. In this digital age, technology is often used to facilitate personalized learning and the development of student competencies. This session will briefly review the structure of competency-based education and the personalization of learning, and then focus on hands-on demonstrations of both high-tech and low-tech strategies to specifically support personal competencies in learners with ASD.

32. Early Numeracy and Beginning Math Concepts
Jared Campbell

Early numeracy concepts and skills are essential for continued achievement in mathematics. Structuring students' earliest experiences with mathematics in a CRA sequence can help them conceptualize the concept of numbers and provide for more fluent and flexible counting and computation. In this session, participants will engage in the CRA instructional sequence in connection with the base ten number system, subitizing, and early computation though composing and decomposing numbers.

Wednesday, August 5

34. Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior: Basic Methods, Extensions, and Challenges (repeat)
Brian Iwata

This presentation will review the learning mechanisms by which problem behaviors such as aggression, self-injury, and stereotypy are acquired and maintained; provide detailed description of methods for conducting functional analyses; and integrate assessment findings with intervention strategies.

35. Social Skills: Where to Start and How Skills Streaming Can Play a Role
Leigh O’Brien

This presentation will examine learner profiles based on the VB-MAPP and how to attempt to facilitate social interactions. Focus will be on peer-to-peer pairing, manding, and how to effectively implement the Skills Streaming Curricula.

36. Schedules of Reinforcement: Clinical Applications and Issues
Eb Blakely

Schedules of reinforcement are essential elements of treatment and educational plans. Sequencing various reinforcers is important in skill acquisition, as well as behavior reduction. One class of schedule, the ratio schedule, involves response requirements, and can be either fixed or variable. These schedules are often used in skill development. Another class, the time schedules, involve only passage of time. These schedules are frequently used in behavior reduction. A third class of schedule involves both behavior and time. The combination of behavior requirements and time is seen in duration schedules and the differential schedules. These schedules can be applied to both skill development and behavior reduction. When treatment or teaching first begins, the schedule of reinforcement is often "enriched," or very little is required to earn the reinforcer. As the learner makes progress, the schedule gradually is "thinned" or requires more to earn the reinforcer. Schedule thinning will be discussed and demonstrated. Schedules of reinforcement can involve naturally occurring reinforcers, such as praise and attention, work breaks, and outings. They can also involve more artificial reinforcers, such as tokens, snacks, and tangibles. The presentation will discuss both artificial and naturally occurring reinforcers and the transition from the former to the latter. Finally, two criticisms of schedules of reinforcement will be discussed. To wit, it has been suggested that schedules of reinforcement involve "bribery," and that they devalue the intrinsic value of the behavior receiving the reinforcer. We will discuss these two critiques, and offer logical and/or empirical arguments against them.

37. The Role of Joint Control in Teaching Complex Listener Responding to Children with Autism (repeat)
Vincent J. Carbone

Skinner’s (1957) analysis of language has much to offer clinicians interested in teaching verbal behavior to persons with autism. Much of the research in this area has emphasized the teaching of speaker behavior with less work dedicated to a thorough analysis of the contingencies operating on the behavior of the listener. Possibly due to this lack of attention, cognitive explanations of comprehension, understanding, and recognition have persisted. A special form of multiple control called joint stimulus control may provide an alternative and cogent behavioral analysis of complex listener behavior. The purpose of this workshop is to provide an overview of the conceptual analysis of joint control and the basic and applied research that has followed. Video demonstrations of the teaching of joint control with participants from a recently published study and clinical applications will be presented to illustrate the implementation of joint control procedures in applied settings.

38. Evidence-Based Practices for Preschool Students with Autism
Ashlee Lamson, Jessica Dodge, Illen Toll, David Mandell, Elizabeth Downs
39. Effective Instruction to Develop Willing Learners
Aimee Miller
40. Charting a Reasonable Dream
Patrick McGreevy

Dr. McGreevy will describe the goals of both developmental skills and functional skills curricula and when to use either or both. This discussion will help to inform conversations with parents regarding reasonable goals for their children.

41. Transitioning to Adulthood: Accessing Pennsylvania's Adult Autism Programs and Resources
Nina Wall, Roni Russell, Joelle Scholl, Erica Wexler
42. Best Practices in Early Intensive Intervention: Guidelines and Considerations
Ivy Chong

Behavior analytic research in early intensive intervention continues to advance treatments designed to improve the lives of individuals diagnosed with ASD. This presentation will review the evidence base for teaching and prompting procedures most commonly used in early intervention programs. Additionally, these procedures will be discussed as they relate to target selection, programming, and developing treatment goals. The central focus will be on comprehensive therapy to lessen the symptoms of ASDs through the use of a dynamically changing treatment plan.

43. Introduction to Math Instruction Using the CRA Model
Jared Campbell

Concrete Representational Abstract (CRA) is a gradual systematic approach to teaching mathematical concepts and skills. Since mathematics is an abstract- and language-intensive discipline, instructional strategies that reduce initial abstractness and focus on conceptual meaning while streamlining the necessary language requirements set the stage for making more mathematical content more accessible to a wider array of students. In this session, participants will engage in the CRA instructional sequence for the four basic operations.

44. Autism-Related Wandering: Strategies for Prevention and Response
Wendy Fournier, Lori McIlwain

Since 2008, the National Autism Association has been working on the issue of wandering and elopement. Through its Big Red Safety initiatives, the organization has developed extensive resources on implementing effective strategies for prevention and response to wandering incidents involving individuals with autism. This presentation will cover existing data, different types of wandering behaviors, potential causes of elopement, discussion of case studies, and how to implement safety strategies in home and school environments.

45. Treatment Integrity, Transcription and Supervision Workshop
Mike Miklos
46. Meaningful IEP and Program Development
Amiris DiPuglia
47. Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior: Basic Methods, Extensions, and Challenges (repeat)
Brian Iwata

This presentation will review the learning mechanisms by which problem behaviors such as aggression, self-injury, and stereotypy are acquired and maintained; provide detailed description of methods for conducting functional analyses; and integrate assessment findings with intervention strategies.

48. Teaming with General Education Teachers for Optimum Results
Pennsylvania Teacher Teams
49. A Behavioral Approach to Sensory Challenges
Amy McGinnis

This workshop will provide evidence-based procedures to overcome behavioral challenges that are often referred to as "sensory" behaviors. Topics will include examining the function of these behaviors, and selecting proactive and reactive strategies to replace challenging behaviors with other responses. Live demonstration and video examples with be used to illustrate concepts.

50. The Role of Joint Control in Teaching Complex Listener Responding to Children with Autism (repeat)
Vincent J. Carbone

Skinner’s (1957) analysis of language has much to offer clinicians interested in teaching verbal behavior to persons with autism. Much of the research in this area has emphasized the teaching of speaker behavior with less work dedicated to a thorough analysis of the contingencies operating on the behavior of the listener. Possibly due to this lack of attention, cognitive explanations of comprehension, understanding, and recognition have persisted. A special form of multiple control called joint stimulus control may provide an alternative and cogent behavioral analysis of complex listener behavior. The purpose of this workshop is to provide an overview of the conceptual analysis of joint control and the basic and applied research that has followed. Video demonstrations of the teaching of joint control with participants from a recently published study and clinical applications will be presented to illustrate the implementation of joint control procedures in applied settings.

51. Teaching Verbal Conditional Discrimination: A Framework for Organizing Language Curricula to Establish Generalized Question-Answering in Children with Autism (repeat)
Francesca degli Espinosa

Although a number of curricular guides for teaching language to children with autism exist, little research has yet investigated ways in which curricular content can be arranged to establish question-answering (i.e., verbal conditional discrimination) as a generalized skill. This question is of particular importance because, despite intensive teaching, children with autism often remain unable to answer novel questions involving established tacts: For example, although a child may say "red" when shown a red color card and "apple" when shown a picture of an apple, when shown a red apple and asked "what color is it?," he may answer "apple." This presentation will argue that such failures in responding occur when question-answering has been taught under the simple control of nonverbal stimuli (e.g., objects and events), rather than under the multiple control of nonverbal and verbal stimuli (i.e., of objects and events and a question itself). Procedures to remediate such discriminative failures will be illustrated and a framework for sequencing language objectives described that first allows generalized question-answering to be taught in relation to individual objects and events at the tact level, and which subsequently permits teaching of incrementally more complex intraverbal question-answering about properties of objects and events (e.g., functions, categories, parts vs. wholes, attributes), about general topics, and about past and private events. Special emphasis will be placed throughout on the role of autoclitic frames and intraverbal control in establishing tact and intraverbal conditional discrimination as a generalized skill and as a basis for avoiding the requirement for teaching specific responses to specific questions — a requirement that, it will be suggested, commonly results in failures of verbal discriminative control.

52. Advanced Mand Procedures and Protocols
David Roth
53. OBM in Practice: Improving Staff Performance in Human Service Settings
Dennis Reid

This presentation will describe an evidence-based approach to training, supervising, and motivating education and human service staff. Initially, a summary of the importance of using evidence-based practices when supervising or consulting with staff will be provided, along with the importance of not only promoting quality staff work but also enhancing staff work enjoyment. Next, a step-wise approach to supervision will be described, including defining staff performance expectations, training work skills to staff (with a particular focus on training procedures that are not only effective but also time-efficient), monitoring staff performance in ways acceptable to staff, actively supporting proficient staff performance, and correcting nonproficient performance. Results of research will be provided to highlight the evidence base of recommended procedures and illustrate real-life examples. Demonstrations and attendee practice activities will be included with selected training and supervision strategies. Throughout the presentation, strategies for promoting staff work enjoyment will be embedded in the discussion of training and supervising staff performance.

54. Overview of the Essential Components of Literacy: Connections to Instruction for Students with Autism
Karen Grammas, Nichole Kopco

Participants can gain an understanding of the "Essential Components of Reading Instruction (the 5 Big Ideas)." Activities will be presented to help reinforce skills that align to concepts that are being taught in the classroom during English Language Arts instruction. Relationships to the literacy continuum and students with autism will be addressed throughout the presentation with connections to instructional matching based on student need(s).

55. Early Intervention: Your First Step as an Active and Informed Parent for Your Child
Kimberly J. Herb, Mary Mikus

This session will provide an overview of Early Intervention from determining eligibility, promoting child progress, and transition at both preschool and school-age. Family-centered approaches, such as creating a vision for your child and the family's role as a key team member, will be highlighted. Local resources, family training, and networking opportunities with other families will be discussed.

56. Alternate Eligible Content/Instruction and PASA: Current Information and Future Direction
John Machella, Sharon L. Leonard, Audrey Kappel

Participants will receive the most recent information with regard to Pennsylvania's alternate eligible content and assessment in the areas of English language arts, math, and science. Instructional supports and resources for teachers aligned to this content will also be discussed. Participants will have an opportunity to provide feedback in regard to needs and supports for implementation of the content.

57. ACT Training for Parents
Mark Dixon
58. Speech Basics for Children with Autism: Strategies for the Classroom and Home
Debi Finarelli, Heather Forbes, Jaime Baker, Amy Foor

Many children with autism do not acquire vocal verbal behavior as their primary form of communication. To overcome this deficit, the implementation of some behavior analytic procedures has shown promise in supporting the development of vocal verbal behavior in children with autism. Specific teaching procedures that aim to increase speech production and speech clarity in the classroom and in the home are described, as well as the learner characteristics necessary for the implementation of each procedure.

59. Programming and Instruction for Generalization and Generativity
Amiris DiPuglia

Thursday, August 6

61. Legal Issues for Students with ASD
Perry Zirkel

This session will provide a fast-paced review and ample handout materials for (a) the basic legal foundation under the IDEA and Chapter 14 leading to (b) an update of the case law on eligibility and methodology issues for students with ASD. The legal foundation will include the primary sources of law (e.g., legislation and regulations), the IDEA criteria for eligibility and free appropriate public education (FAPE), and the alternative avenues for parental enforcement of these criteria. The review of recent case law will include major published decisions specific to students with ASD, including FAPE–related issues of bullying, transitioning from Part C to Part B of the IDEA, and LRE in ESY.

62. Teaching Handwriting to Students with Autism
Amy McGinnis

This presentation will provide evidence-based strategies for teaching writing to students. Objective data collection measures will be modeled. Video and live examples will be used to illustrate concepts.

63. Teaching Verbal Conditional Discrimination: A Framework for Organizing Language Curricula to Establish Generalized Question-Answering in Children with Autism (repeat)
Francesca degli Espinosa

Although a number of curricular guides for teaching language to children with autism exist, little research has yet investigated ways in which curricular content can be arranged to establish question-answering (i.e., verbal conditional discrimination) as a generalized skill. This question is of particular importance because, despite intensive teaching, children with autism often remain unable to answer novel questions involving established tacts: For example, although a child may say "red" when shown a red color card and "apple" when shown a picture of an apple, when shown a red apple and asked "what color is it?," he may answer "apple." This presentation will argue that such failures in responding occur when question-answering has been taught under the simple control of nonverbal stimuli (e.g., objects and events), rather than under the multiple control of nonverbal and verbal stimuli (i.e., of objects and events and a question itself). Procedures to remediate such discriminative failures will be illustrated and a framework for sequencing language objectives described that first allows generalized question-answering to be taught in relation to individual objects and events at the tact level, and which subsequently permits teaching of incrementally more complex intraverbal question-answering about properties of objects and events (e.g., functions, categories, parts vs. wholes, attributes), about general topics, and about past and private events. Special emphasis will be placed throughout on the role of autoclitic frames and intraverbal control in establishing tact and intraverbal conditional discrimination as a generalized skill and as a basis for avoiding the requirement for teaching specific responses to specific questions — a requirement that, it will be suggested, commonly results in failures of verbal discriminative control.

64. Motivating Operations and Reinforcers: Further Analysis of Effects and Interaction
Jonathan W. Ivy

A motivating operation (MO) is an antecedent event that momentarily alters the value of a consequence and simultaneously alters some dimension of a response class related to that consequence. Although the current conceptualization of MOs is a relatively recent development, it has had a profound impact on behavioral research and practice. These antecedent variables have been shown to impact preference assessment results, functional analysis results, engagement with activities, within-session responding, social initiations toward peers, and challenging behaviors. MOs alter the effectiveness of stimulus events to function as reinforcers. In this respect, the analysis of reinforcement is incomplete without accounting for MOs. Identifying the variables that influence motivation for a given consequent stimulus would allow researchers and practitioners to exert control over the value- and behavior-altering properties of MOs. This workshop will provide attendees with a practical overview of MOs and the interaction between MOs and reinforcers.

65. Getting Unstuck and On Target: Practical Solutions for Building Executive Function Skills
Laura Gutermuth Anthony, Lauren Kenworthy

This presentation will highlight a new intervention framework focusing on executive functioning (EF) in ASD, including strategies that you can use today. Executive dysfunction is common in ASD and is linked to academic, social and adaptive problems. We will first help you identify when a child with ASD is having trouble with executive functioning, so that you can better distinguish a "can't" from a "won't" and therefore intervene more effectively. Next, we will describe the basics of our elementary- and middle school–aged interventions. We developed a cognitive-behavioral school- and home-based intervention program targeting flexibility, goal-setting, and planning called Unstuck and On Target (UOT). We developed UOT with an innovative combination of participatory process and theory-driven methods. Because EF deficits are primarily expressed in real-world classroom, home, and social settings, it was essential that we develop and test UOT in such settings and that the intervention be administrable by school personnel. The result is a series of accommodations, active teaching activities, and scripts or vocabulary to promote better EF that we will show you how to use in this presentation.

We will also describe the results of our recent randomized, controlled trial that compared UOT to a social skills intervention of equal intensity in well-matched 3rd–5th grade children with ASD in 14 schools. Classroom observations showed UOT was better than social skills in improvements in children's following directions, transitioning, flexibility, and positivity as well as improvements in classroom structure and teacher strategies. UOT also improved flexibility, planning, and efficiency of problem solving better than the social skills intervention, and interestingly, also improved social skills as well. UOT was implemented in mainstream schools by school personnel with high fidelity, which makes it more accessible to children and increases its potential for generalization. These data point to the effectiveness of the first contextually based EF intervention for children with ASD without ID of which we are aware. Finally, we will discuss new adaptations of UOT. We will present information on its adaptation/translation for use with students with ADHD and low-income and Spanish-speaking families, which is currently being studied in a large comparative effectiveness trial (UOT compared to Contingency Behavior Management) in schools with a high percentage of children living in poverty. We will also describe the adaptation of UOT for middle school students, On Target for Life, which will be the subject of a school-based trial led by our colleague, John Strang, PsyD.

66. Friends and Fitness: Strong Friendships! Strong Bodies!
Tamara S. Kasper

Development of friendships is a challenge for individuals with autism. Many friendships are built around recess, family gatherings, and community events that require social and athletic abilities. Learn simple, research-based methods to improve interest, knowledge, and motor abilities via "Friends and Fitness." This athletically oriented social opportunity offers an individualized, evidence-based curriculum for learners with autism in a small group format. This therapy "class" meets twice weekly at a studio or community location and is team taught by a certified personal trainer and Tamara Kasper, MS, CCC-SLP, BCBA. This social opportunity provides direct instruction with prompting and prompt fading, using Direct Instruction cues and behavioral skills training procedures in three areas: athletic skills needed in order to participate in games and athletic activities, social skills required to make and maintain friends, and the ability to follow directions from a coach or peer who is organizing an opportunity. Goals are individualized and include recognizing games/sports, understanding the rules of games/sports, pairing games/sports with reinforcement, joining a formal/informal game or activity, organizing a game or activity, asking others to join, predicting the behavior of a peer, identifying and rating your own level of volume, fatigue, like/dislike, speed during an activity, asking others about their feelings, offering assistance, early negotiation/problem solving, and understanding language and figures of speech associated with sports. This instruction consists of cartoon representations of social language goals, video models, guided practice with feedback, and contrived opportunities to practice skills through games, and contrived social problems. The class is composed of learners with autism and specially trained, typically developing peer models. Past participants demonstrate dramatic progress in post-test assessment of social skills, motor skills, and sports facts. Shadows are assigned on an individual basis as needed, based on the social skills and motor skills of the learner.

67. Organized Knowledge and Organized Life: How the Science of Behavior Analysis Offers the Philosophy and Technology to Provide the Most Effective Treatment for Individuals with ASD
Tim Caldwell

Autism spectrum disorders present a vast array of challenges to parents, family, and treatment team members. The science of applied behavior analysis and interventions created out of research into the processes of learned behavior have provided a framework to uncover and teach skill deficits. This presentation will examine how effective treatment should be grounded in scientific inquiry and should utilize the methods developed by scientific research as a means to improve the lives of individuals and families with ASD. Building on the base of ABA, the presentation will examine the necessity of individualization in treatment and how parents and professionals can advocate for the most effective treatments for the individual. The presentation is interactive and will include activities designed to give participants specific ideas and plans to evaluate their current behavioral programming and modify or advocate for treatment that will allow their child or client to be as independent, successful, and happy as possible.

68. Using Evidence-Based Practice to Develop Speech and Language Skills
Debi Finarelli, Heather Forbes

This session will discuss how analyzing communication as verbal behavior provides sequenced, cohesive, and effective speech and language programming for students with autism. The presentation will review how available research from speech-language pathology and applied behavior analysis can be integrated into teaching verbal repertoires.

69. Pennsylvania's Systemic Improvement Plan to Increase School Completion Rates for Students with Disabilities
Tina M. Lawson, Shanna Bradfield

The State Performance Plan/Annual Performance Report (SPP/APR) of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) provides a framework for continuous improvement in educational outcomes for students with disabilities. The SPP/APR is built upon federally mandated indicators of compliance and performance. Each indicator includes baseline data, annual measurable and rigorous targets, and improvement activities. It is developed with significant input from the Pennsylvania Special Education Advisory Panel and other stakeholders. An additional new requirement of the SPP/APR is the State Systemic Improvement Plan (Indicator 17) built around a particular focus area. Pennsylvania worked in collaboration with stakeholders and the SEAP and identified improving school completion rates for students with disabilities as its focus area. This session will help participants become familiar with, and be able to discuss, research-based strategies to help students with disabilities stay in school and graduate with a high school diploma.

71. Successful Implementation of ABA/VB Programming in a Secondary Classroom: The Challenges and Successes of Developing a "First Time" ABA/VB Classroom for Learners at the Secondary Level (repeat)
Eileen Roberts, Sharon Kratzer

The classroom teacher will present how she and her team successfully implemented ABA/VB programming in a secondary classroom setting with young adult learners who exhibit moderate to severe levels of autism. Information will be presented on the following areas as they relate to older students with limited skill repertoires: classroom set-up; assessment of language skills using a functional analysis; selection of teaching targets, teaching procedures, and data collection; interventions for problem behavior; social skills training; and postsecondary transitions.

72. Use of a Three-Tiered PBIS Model to Deliver Evidence-Based Services to Students with Autism (repeat)
Todd Harris, Richard G. Allen
73. Accessing Independent Leisure and Social Skills (repeat)
Elizabeth Kemeny, Deborah Hutchins

Social skills and self-efficacy are important building blocks to functional independence and quality of life for youth with autism. Component parts of productive work, independent leisure participation, and quality of life include skills in: 1) self-determined choice making and problem solving; 2) attention to task; 3) confidence in one's abilities; and 4) independent communication. In the United States alone this year, approximately 50,000 adolescents with ASD turned 18 years old (Shattuck et al, 2012). According to a national study, more than half of the families of adolescents with autism report the lack of effective or consistent interventions specifically designed for lifelong independence and wellness (U.S. Department of Education, 2011). Most individuals with autism require intervention throughout adolescence into adulthood (AMR, 2012) with a yearly cost of $3.2 million per capita. The TRAILS program at Slippery Rock University pairs undergraduate students with youth with ASD in an individualized goal-directed program throughout the school year.

74. Teaching Secondary Students Job Skills (repeat)
Lisa Stough, Lauren Kerns
75. Practices to Promote Social Skills in School Settings (repeat)
Exemplary Pennsylvania Educators
76. Supporting Effective Academic Instructional Practices in School Settings
Tonya Artus
77a. Natural Environmental Training
Pam Salerno, Mike Houck, Aja Weston
77b. Autism at Work Pilot Program
Tanya Regli
79. Successful Implementation of ABA/VB Programming in a Secondary Classroom: The Challenges and Successes of Developing a "First Time" ABA/VB Classroom for Learners at the Secondary Level (repeat)
Eileen Roberts, Sharon Kratzer

The classroom teacher will present how she and her team successfully implemented ABA/VB programming in a secondary classroom setting with young adult learners who exhibit moderate to severe levels of autism. Information will be presented on the following areas as they relate to older students with limited skill repertoires: classroom set-up; assessment of language skills using a functional analysis; selection of teaching targets, teaching procedures, and data collection; interventions for problem behavior; social skills training; and postsecondary transitions.

80. Use of a Three-Tiered PBIS Model to Deliver Evidence-Based Services to Students with Autism (repeat)
Todd Harris, Richard G. Allen
81. Accessing Independent Leisure and Social Skills (repeat)
Elizabeth Kemeny, Deborah Hutchins

Social skills and self-efficacy are important building blocks to functional independence and quality of life for youth with autism. Component parts of productive work, independent leisure participation, and quality of life include skills in: 1) self-determined choice making and problem solving; 2) attention to task; 3) confidence in one's abilities; and 4) independent communication. In the United States alone this year, approximately 50,000 adolescents with ASD turned 18 years old (Shattuck et al, 2012). According to a national study, more than half of the families of adolescents with autism report the lack of effective or consistent interventions specifically designed for lifelong independence and wellness (U.S. Department of Education, 2011). Most individuals with autism require intervention throughout adolescence into adulthood (AMR, 2012) with a yearly cost of $3.2 million per capita. The TRAILS program at Slippery Rock University pairs undergraduate students with youth with autism spectrum disorders in an individualized goal-directed program throughout the school year.

82. Teaching Secondary Students Job Skills (repeat)
Lisa Stough, Lauren Kerns
83. Practices to Promote Social Skills in School Settings (repeat)
Exemplary Pennsylvania Educators
84. Supporting Effective Academic Instructional Practices in School Settings (repeat)
Tonya Artus
85. Natural Environmental Training (repeat)
Pam Salerno, Mike Houck, Aja Weston
86. Closing Keynote: Evidence Knows No Boundary: Collaboration for Children across State Lines
Stacey Martin

Educating individuals on the autism spectrum is both rewarding and challenging. In order to effectively and efficiently meet the varying needs of these individuals, one must have the right tools in his or her toolbox — tools that have been proven to be effective in making a difference in the lives of persons and families affected by ASD. However, having "just the tools" is simply not enough. One must have a road map of how the tools fit together and can be used in order to ensure meaningful outcomes for students. As a 30-year educator, with 25 years spent working directly with students on the spectrum, and their teachers, Stacey Martin will share how she came to be trained in the comprehensive, evidence-based programming implemented by the PaTTAN Autism Initiative and the impact this programming has had on the students in one Missouri school district.

87. Special Closing Music Presentation
Jodi DiPiazza